Kashu-do (歌手道): Appoggio 2: Mental Conception of the Voice and Anatomical Response

The term “La lotta vocale” (vocal struggle) is one often tossed around when discussing breath support or appoggio.  All this terminology makes very little sense without understanding 1) What the body does automatically 2) What the singer is responsible for on a conscious level.

Question: Why does a baby exhibit perfect breath support when crying?

Answer:  The baby has an overwhelming desire to express a specific need.  The expression therefore requires certain mechanical responses from the body, which include strong phonation and excellent compression of the breath by way of efficient muscular antagonism (The so-called lotta vocale).

Therefore we should look at breath support as beginning with a mental concept of the specific sound we need to produce.  Quite erroneously, singers often begin with the idea that “if I support I will create a great sound!”  It is rather the opposite that is true.  If I expect to produce a great sound, excellent breath coordination must be a part of it.

Indeed the compression of the breath is automatic, if:

1) The glottal resistance is adequate (i.e. if the throat is doing its part).  Appropriate glottal resistance begins with a mental idea of what sound is to be produced. A substantial sound will produce substantial glottal resistance, providing the singer has the vocal wherewithal to produce the sound that is conceived.  A sense of flow must also be part of the mental picture of the sound lest the singer ends up with rigid substance.  Nor should flow be considered without sound substance lest the result ends up being unopposed air (breathy singing).  Correct glottal resistance requires a mental concept and learned sensation of flowing substance.

2)  The muscles of inhalation remain active at and beyond the point of vocal onset.  The idea of lotta vocale or appoggio technique, as some like to call it, is indeed simple.  If the muscles of inhalation (which muscularly oppose the muscles of exhalation) are continually active (not relaxing to allow the air to collapse), the only muscles that can push the air out are the exhalation muscles, and they will respond automatically.  

Question: But what activates the many muscles of exhalation?

Answer:  The desire to release a specific sound (as long as the muscles of inhalation do not collapse).

In short, we are left with another axiom from the Old School.  Sing on the feeling of inhalation!

A good inhalation expands the ribcage and the belly (diaphragmatic descent pushes the viscera down and out).  If we maintain this supple sensation of suspended expansion (not rigid), and we desire to sing a substantial sound, the body’s exhalation muscles (abdominals of many kinds, internal intercostals, i.e. the core muscles) must respond to help produce the desired sound.

Our responsibilities relative to appoggio therefore are the following:

A) Develop laryngeal structure capable of producing a substantial sound (this is not a given and not equal in every singer before training)

B) Inhale deeply so to expand the body fully

C) Desire to produce a substantial and flowing tone (whether soft or loud)

This will yield the desired response:

D) The many core muscles respond to create the breath compression commensurate with the desired sound.

The body is mostly an automatic machine.  Our responsibility is to train it, such that it is fit and capable of producing the desired results (like an athlete does.  Just because one has athletic talent does not mean one does not need to train daily).  Then we must know what activity we are consciously responsible for (maintain body expansion in this case) such that the automatic parts happen without our interference.

Finally, for my part, I believe that the definition of the term, lotta vocale, and indeed of every jargon found in vocal history, should be updated to reflect what we understand about the instrument.  Lotta vocale speaks to muscular antagonism between the muscles of inhalation and exhalation.  There is a lotta vocale, “a vocal struggle”, happening at every level of singing, not only breathing.  The dynamic relationship between muscles of heavy mechanism and those of light mechanism (i.e. TA vs. CT) is a type of lotta vocale.   The dynamic relationship between laryngeal depressors and laryngeal levitators is a type of lotta vocale.  The relationship between laryngeal stability and tongue movement is a kind of lotta vocale.  Indeed the stability of the body in motion depends on a paradoxical and antagonistic relationship between muscle pairs.

A singer’s life is made many times more difficult by the fact that we cannot see the vocal muscles at work.  Singers sing by feel and it is very easy to get attached to a particular sensation that might be one-sided.  Many great and balanced voices deteriorate because the singer assumed that his/her vocal balanced was due to the one thing that had been lacking.

Whether it is Alfredo Kraus who spoke only about “sensing the voice forward”, or Caballe who speaks exclusively about the breath, or Corelli who spoke incessantly about the low larynx, most of the singers who had great careers began with vocal advantages (mostly cultural stimuli that trained substantial vocal use before the singer was aware).  Many of them define technique by the small part they needed to learn. Something that may work for those students who needed the same thing but often ends up being disastrous for students who have other needs.

Great pedagogy is not only giving the students what they need, but making them aware of what they already have and how and why it works!

© 12/30/2012

7 thoughts on “Kashu-do (歌手道): Appoggio 2: Mental Conception of the Voice and Anatomical Response

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  1. May I ask you a question? I had just gotten accustomed to the idea, and feeling, of keeping the inhalation muscles active, as you talk about here. It made me happy! to find an explicable answer! But I keep seeing this other idea pop up, of “concentrating on not only expanding the rib cage, but actively pushing it out” as espoused by Kraus, among (many) others. Do you think the practice of inalare la voce basically does this, to some degree; and we don't need to actively think about it? I can feel my stomach muscles working, though i'm hesitant to figure out the exact sensations.
    But that is my hope, as I once heard somebody talk about inalare as an 'umbrella' technique that somewhat takes care of 90% of vocal problems.
    Regardless, many thanks for your time

    And here's a quote from Krauss, in case i didn't explain it well:
    “When we open our ribs as widely as possible the elastic
    membrane we call the diaphragm is completely flattened. In this way it is
    able to sustain the column of air that is needed to sing. This is very
    important: while inspiring all the ribs widen, then you must sustain by
    increasing the outwards pressure of the diaphragm, so that it remains as
    flat as possible during the whole process. It is wrong to pull in your
    stomach while exhaling, I'm sorry if someone disagrees. By pulling in your
    stomach the membrane looses tension and can no longer sustain the sound.”


  2. The quote from Kraus stems from sensations he has personally and not based on muscular function in the empirical sense. The diaphragm's contraction does not depend upon the expansion of the ribcage. The desire to inhale activates the contraction of the diaphragm and the external intercostals creating a large vacuum that must be filled (law of equilibrium). The diaphragm must relax and go up as part of maintaining compression and the many core musculature and internal intercostals try to reduce the thoracic space to create compression! “Inalare la voce” basically means “imagine you are still inhaling during phonation”. That desire is enough to maintain activity in the external intercostals and provide balance in the compression. Without it, one would overcompress! Actively pushing out the ribcage requires overactivity in the abdominal musculature. This can work short term when other muscles are weak, but disastrous long term.


  3. Hey, thank you so much for your response! I truly appreciate it. (and sorry i just now checked back).

    Am i to take it from your description that you completely do not subscribe to the idea of appoggio (ie constant-rib-expanding)? That is, only allow for them to expand upon inhale, then let nature take its course?
    Or do you advocate keeping some form of appoggio, as well as inalare la voce?

    Thanks again for your time; this stuff is so foreign, frustrating, and impressionistic to me.


  4. If you read 2) I address exactly that above! Maintaining the ribs expanded while singing is extremely important!. Where I differ from Kraus explanation is in the execution: I desire to maintain the expanding sensation of inhalation but I do not advocate actively pushing out! The latter creates tensions that are not helpful in my experience! As for “inalare la voce” I. believe it's a mid 20th century concept that constitutes the same principle of singing on the feeling of inhalation!


  5. You're right- i forgot to go back and re-read the article, and it was right bloody there. I apologize.

    May I press my luck further, and ask you another question? You talk of on a full breath, the viscera coming out (in front). I had read in some other places that the belly protruding is not desirable. Are you talking about it coming out just a little bit, or the full-scale protruding? I do tend to find that when i mainly back breathe, it's not as enervating as a belly breathing; i feel more “jet-packed” and ready-to-go, so to speak.

    I hope it goes without saying, but I'm so thankful to you for receiving and answering my questions. I live in Mississippi, am not an opera singer (by a long shot), and just desperately want to learn to sing more effortlessly. I've (ignorantly or kismet-ly) come to the place of just sticking to trying to learn appoggio and inalare la voce, and hoping that'll be a decent education and method. Cheers, Jeff


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